Lesson 9

Grammar – Past Participle (el participio)

Spanish uses the past participle primarily for present perfect, past perfect, and other similar times. For -ar verbs form the past participle by adding -ado to the stem. For -er and -ir verbs add -ido:

VerbPast Participle
hablarhablado
comercomido
vivirvivido

If the stem of an -er or -ir verb ends in one of the vowels -a, -e, or -o, the i of -ido gets an accent mark:

VerbPast Participle
caercaído
creercreído
leerleído
oiroído
reirreído

There are a few verbs with an irregular past participle:

VerbPast Participle
abrirabierto
cubrircubierto
descubrirdescubierto
decirdicho
escribirescrito
freírfrito
hacerhecho
irido
morirmuerto
ponerpuesto
romperroto
satisfacersatisfecho
vervisto
volvervuelto

As in English, the past participle can also be used as an adjective for a noun. In that case the ending has to match gender and number of the noun. Example:

Su barba está afeitada.His beard is shaved.

Finally, there are a few verbs with both a regular and an irregular past participle. In this case, the irregular past participle is used as an adjective, while the regular form is used for the verb tenses.

VerbPast Participle
imprimirimprimido / impreso
ocultarocultado / oculto

Grammar – Present Perfect (el pretérito perfecto)

The Spanish present perfect is formed by conjugating the auxiliary verb haber (= to have) and adding the past participle of the verb.

Present PerfectEnglish
yohe comidoI have eaten
has comidoyou have eaten
Ud./él/ellaha comidoyou/he/she has eaten
nosotros(as)hemos comidowe have eaten
vosotros(as)habéis comidoyou have eaten
Uds./ellos(as)han comidoyou/they have eaten

Here are a few examples of the Spanish Present perfect. Note that in Spanish the auxiliary verb haber and the past participle are never separated:

Carlos y yo hemos jugado fútbol.Carlos and I have played soccer.
¿Has hecho tus tareas escolares de español?Have you done your Spanish homework?
Nunca se ha enfermado.He has never been sick.

Grammar – Pluperfect (el pretérito pluscuamperfecto)

The Spanish pluperfect is formed by conjugating imperfect of haber (= to have) and adding the past participle of the verb.

Present PerfectEnglish
yohabía comidoI had eaten
habías comidoyou had eaten
Ud./él/ellahabía comidoyou/he/she had eaten
nosotros(as)habíamos comidowe had eaten
vosotros(as)habíais comidoyou (all) had eaten
Uds./ellos(as)habían comidoyou/they had eaten

Here are a few examples of the Spanish pluperfect. It is used to refer to an event that happened before another event in the past. As in the present perfect, the auxiliary verb haber and the past participle are never separated:

Carlos y yo habíamos jugado el fútbol antes la fiesta anoche.Carlos and I had played soccer before the party last night.
¿Tu habías venido antes a Mexico?Had you been to Mexico before?
Nunca se había enfermado cuando era un niño.He had never been sick while he was a kid.

El vocabulario (Vocabulary) – Los medios (Media)

Spanish Flag

El Vocabulario
Los medios

Media Vocabulary

el artículo
la cadena
el canal
el/la comentarista
el/la crítico/a
en directo, en vivo
la estación de radio
las noticias
el noticiero
el/la periodista
el periódico
la prensa
la primera plana
la sección deportiva
la sección financiera
la radio
el/la reportero/a
la telenovela
la revista
la televisión
el titular
la historieta
la música

article
network
channel
commentator
critic
live
radio station
news
newscast
journalist
newspaper
press
front page
sports section
business section
radio (As in what you hear on the radio)
reporter
soap opera
magazine
television
headline
comic book
music


3 Comments

  • #1 by ariel on April 19 - 2:40 pm

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    i think you should have it were it pronounces it to you,were you know how to say it.instead of just spell it!

  • #2 by nana on September 26 - 10:54 pm

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    i think there should be a test after each lesson to see your progress

  • #3 by jack brian on January 4 - 4:55 pm

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    I think this deserves an A plus.Very well written.I was unable to print it off for some reason????It would be very helpfull in my studies.Keep up the good work.

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