Lesson 8

Grammar – Formal Commands (el imperativo)

Commands are used when you ask someone to do something or give instructions to people. In this lesson we learn the formal commands, which are the ones you say to persons where you use the usted or ustedes form. The following table shows the endings for the regular verbs. Note that the stem changes that occur in the yo form, (e->ie, e->i, o->ue, ar/er/ir->go cer->zco etc., ) apply for formal commands:

hablarcomerpedir
Ustedhablecomapida
Ustedeshablencomanpidan

The following verbs have irregular formal commands:

darestarirsaberser
Ustedestévayasepasea
Ustedesdenesténvayansepansean

Like in English, the command is usually put in the beginning of the sentence:

Examples:

Piense antes de hablar.Think before you speak.
Terminen sus tareas escolares.Finish your homework.
Dejen la casa inmediatamente.Leave the house immediately.

Grammar – Informal Tú-Commands

In this lesson we learn the commands you say to someone you would address in the form. Spanish distinguishes two different types of -commands, the affirmative (do something) and the negative (don’t do something). Like the formal commands, we also apply stem changes here:

hablarcomerpedir
Affirmativehablacomepide
Negativeno hablesno comasno pidas

The following verbs have irregular informal -commands for the affirmative and negative.

decirhacerirponer
Affirmativedihazve/andá (Chile, Argentina)pon
Negativeno digasno hagasno vayasno pongas
salirsertenervenir
Affirmativesaltenven
Negativeno salgasno seasno tengasno vengas

This can be memorized with the rhyming mnemonic device “di haz pon ten, sal sé ve ven.

Examples:

Piensa antes de hablar.Think before you speak.
Termina tus tareas escolares.Finish your homework.
No dejes la casa.Don’t leave the house.

El vocabulario (Vocabulary) – La salud (Health)

Los cuidados médicosMedical attention
la saludthe health
la enfermedadthe disease
el dolorthe pain
el dolor de cabezathe headache
el dolor de estómagothe stomachache
el resfriadothe chill, the cold
la medicinathe medicine
el jarabethe syrup
la gripethe flu
el hospitalthe hospital
la camathe bed
el médicothe physician
la enfermerathe nurse
el catarrothe cold
la tosthe cough
la fiebrethe fever
la quemadura del solthe sunburn
el dolor de la muelathe toothache

El vocabulario (Vocabulary) – El cuerpo (The Body)

Las partes del cuerpoBody parts
la cabezathe head
el ojothe eye
la orejathe ear

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