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Lesson 3: Heath

Illness

French Vocabulary • Health
Illness La maladie
To ache
avoir mal au/à la/à l’/aux…to have a …ache, to hurtavoir mal au ventreto have a bellyache
avoir mal à la têteto have a headacheavoir mal partoutto ache all over
avoir mal à l’oreilleto have an earacheavoir des maux de cœurto feel sick, nauseaus
avoir mal aux dentsto have a toothacheActions
Sickness and Painéternuerto sneeze
être maladeto be sicks’évanouirto faint
avoir la grippeto have the flusaignerto bleed
avoir de la fièvreto have a fevertousserto cough
être enrhuméto have a coldvomirto throw up

Simple Future of Irregular Verbs

The simple future of irregular verbs, like the passé composé of many irregular verbs, must be memorized. What makes this somewhat easy is that verbs with similar endings normally have similar future stems.

For example, the future stem of the verb venir is viendr-. Verbs like venir (devenir, revenir) have a very similar stem (deviendr-, reviendr-).

Issuing Commands in French – l’impératif

  • The nous form commands are used to say “Let’s…”.
  • The subject is not used when giving a command.

Formation

Take away the ending and add on the following shown in the table.

French Grammar • Health
The Imperative L’impératif
-er Verbs-ir Verbs-re Verbs
SubjectEndingVerbEndingVerbEndingVerb
Tu-eParle!-isFinis!-sVends!
Nous-onsParlons!-issonsFinissons!-onsVendons!
Vous-ezParlez!-issezFinissez!-ezVendez!

Affirmative

Negative

The negative imperative is formed by placing the imperative between “ne” and “pas/jamais/rien/etcetera.”

Ne parle pas! (Don’t speak!)

Ne regarde jamais le soleil! (Never look at the sun!)

Adverbs

French adverbs, like their English counterparts, are used to modify adjectives, other adverbs, and verbs or clauses. They do not display any inflection; that is, their form does not change to reflect their precise role, nor any characteristics of what they modify.

Formation

In French, as in English, most adverbs are derived from adjectives. In most cases, this is done by adding the suffix -ment (“-ly”) to the adjective’s feminine singular form. For example, the feminine singular form of lent (“slow”) is lente, so the corresponding adverb is lentement (“slowly”); similarly, heureux ? heureusement (“happy” ? “happily”).

  • If the adjective ends in an i, then -ment is added to the masculine singular (default) form, rather than to the feminine singular form:
    • vrai ? vraiment (“real” ? “really”)
    • poli ? poliment (“polite” ? “politely”)
  • If the adjective ends in -ant or -ent, then the corresponding adverb ends in -amment or -emment, respectively:
    • constant ? constamment (“constant” ? “constantly”)
    • récent ? récemment (“recent” ? “recently”)
  • Some adjectives make other changes:
    • précis ? précisément (“precise” ? “precisely”)
    • gentil ? gentiment (“nice” ? “nicely”)

Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions, not even using the suffix -ment:

  • bon ? bien (“good” ? “well”)
  • mauvais ? mal (“bad” ? “badly”)
  • meilleur ? mieux (“better”-adjective ? “better”-adverb)
  • pire ? pis (“worse”-adjective ? “worse”-adverb)

And, as in English, many common adverbs are not derived from adjectives at all:

  • ainsi (“thus” or “thusly”)

Placement

The placement of French adverbs is almost the same as the placement of English adverbs.
An adverb that modifies an adjective or adverb comes before that adjective or adverb:

  • complètement vrai (“completely true”)
  • pas possible (“not possible”)
  • tellement discrètement (“so discreetly”)

An adverb that modifies an Infinitive (verbal noun) generally comes after the infinitive:

  • marcher lentement (“to walk slowly“)

But negative adverbs, such as pas (“not”), plus (“not any more”), and jamais come before the infinitive:

  • ne pas marcher (“not to walk”)

An adverb that modifies a main verb or clause comes either after the verb, or before the clause:

  • Lentement il commença à marcher or Il commença lentement à marcher (“Slowly, he began to walk” or “He began slowly to walk”).

Note that, unlike in English, this is true even of negative adverbs:

  • Jamais je n’ai fait cela or Je n’ai jamais fait cela (“Never have I done that” or “I’ve never done that”)

Visiting the Doctor

Le patient :

  • Je suis malade. (I am ill).
  • J’ai mal à la tête. (I have a headache).
  • J’ai de la fièvre. (I am fevrish)
  • J’ai mal au ventre.
  • Je vomis.
  • Je tousse. (I cough)

Le docteur

  • Comment allez-vous ?
  • Prenez de l’aspirine.
  • Je vais vous prescrire un médicament.
  • Prenez une cuillère de sirop matin, midi et soir
  • Il faut passer un “scanner”
  • Il faut passer des radios.
  • Il faut vous opérer.

Visiting the Dentist

  • J’ai mal aux dents.
  • Vous avez une carie.
  • Je dois procéder à une extraction. (Il va enlever la dent)
  • J’ai un appareil dentaire.
  • Je vais utiliser la roulette.
  • Ahhhhhhhhhh !

Healthcare

Emergencies

  • Je vais à l’hôpital.
  • C’est grave !
  • Je vais aux urgences.
  • J’ai eu un accident de voiture.
  • SAMU=Service Ambulancier Médical d’Urgence
  • En cas d’accident grave, il faut téléphoner au SAMU (15) ou aux pompiers (18) ou au 112.

Medicine

Body parts

Here is the vocabulary to speak about body parts :

FrenchEnglish
La têteHead
Le corpsBody
Le brasArm
La jambeLeg
La poitrineChest
Le ventreBelly
L’épaule (f)Shoulder
Le coudeElbow
Le poignetWrist
La mainHand
Le doigtFinger
Le genouKnee
Le piedFoot
L’orteil (m)Toe
L’œil (m)
(pl. les yeux)
Eye
La boucheMouth
La dentTooth
Le nezNose
L’oreille (f)Ear
Le couNeck
La langueTongue
Les cheveuxHair
L’ongle (m)Nail
Le poumonLung
L’estomac (m)Stomach
Le cœurHeart
Le foieLiver
L’intestin (m)Intestine
L’os (m)Bone
Le crâneSkull
Le muscleMuscle
Le cerveauBrain
La rateSpleen
L’utérus (m)Womb
Le nombrilNavel,
belly button

Body position

And here is the vocabulary for body positions :

FrenchEnglish
DeboutStanding
AssisSeating
CouchéLaying down
À genouxKneeling
AccroupiSquatted

Common sentences

When you ‘catch a cold’ you ‘attrapes un rhume’. When you’re sick, tu es malade. When you wish to say that parts of your body are sore, you say “J’ai mal au/à la/à l’/aux [body part] …”. Example: J’ai mal à la tete. (I have a headache); J’ai mal aux dents (My teeth hurt).


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