French Introduction | French Level 1 | French Level 2 | French Level 3 | French Grammar

Lesson 1: Traveling

General Traveling

General
il y athere is, there are
l’aéroport (m.)airport
l’autobus (m.)bus
l’avion (m.)aircraft, airplane
les bagagesbaggage
le billetticket (for train, airplane)
le métrosubway, underground
la postepost office
le taxitaxi
le ticketticket (for bus, métro)
le traintrain
la valisesuitcase
la voiturecar
Visiting Other Cities
1aTu es d’où? (informal)Where are you from?
1bD’où êtes-vous? (formal)
1cJe suis de… (d’)I am from…

Geography

Geography
the worldle monde
Political Geography
a cityune ville
a villageun village
a countryun pays
a stateun état
Natural Geography
riverle fleuve
mountainla montagne
lakele lac
oceanl’océan (m)
Cardinal Directions
northle nord
southle sud
eastl’est
westl’ouest
Continents
l’Afrique (f)
l’Amérique du nord (f)
l’Amérique du sud (f)
l’Antarctique (f)
l’Asie (f)
l’Australie (f)
l’Europe (f)
Oceans
l’Océan atlantique (m)
l’Océan glacial arctique (m)
l’Océan indien (m)
l’Océan pacifique (m)

Geography Prepositions

Cities

  • à is used to say in, at, to
    • Je vais à Paris. – I’m going to Paris
  • de is used to say from.
    • Je reviens de Paris. – I return from Paris.
  • cities that have articles as part of their names contract with the preposition if the city is masculine.
    • le Caire – Je vais au Caire. – Je reviens du Caire.
    • le Havre – Je vais au Havre. – Je reviens du Havre.
    • la Nouvelle-Orléans – Je vais à la Nouvelle-Orléans. – Je reviens de la Nouvelle-Orléans.

Feminine Regions, Countries, and Continents

  • Most geographical areas are feminine
  • Every French geographical area that ends in -e is feminine, with one or two exceptions.
  • Every continent is feminine.
  • en is used to say in, at, to for all feminine geographical areas except cities
    • Je vais en France. – I go to France.
  • de is used to say from for all feminine geographical areas except cities
    • Je reviens de France. – I return from France.
  • de is contracted to d’ when followed by a vowel.
    • Je vais en Espagne. – Je reviens d’ Espagne

Masculine Regions

  • all regions that do not end in a slient e are mascuiline
  • dans le is used to say in, at, to for most masculine regions, provinces, and states
    • Je vais dans le Limousin. – I’m going to Limousin.
  • du, a contraction of de + le, is used to say from for most regions, provinces, and states
    • Je reviens du Limousin. – I return from Limousin.
  • If a region is thought of or considered as its own sovereign state, au is used instead of dans le
    • Je vais au Québec. – Je reviens du Québec. (Note: This is for the province of Québec. For the city of Québec, Je vais à Québec should be used. – Je reviens de Québec.)
    • Je vais au Texas. – Je reviens du Texas.

Masculine Countries Starting With a Consonant

  • all countries that do not end in a silent e are masculine
  • le Cambodge, le Mexique, le Zimbabwe, and le Mozambique are masculine
  • au is used to say in, at, to for masculine countries beginning with a consonant
    • Je vais au Portugal. – I’m going to Portugal.
    • du is used to say from for masculine countries beginning with a consonant
    • Je reviens du Portugal. – I return from Portugal.

Plural Countries

  • aux, a contraction of à + les, is used to say in, to, as if a plural article is part of the name of a country
    • Je vais aux États-Unis. – I’m going to the United States. (pronounced aytahzoohnee)
  • des, a contraction of de + les, is used to say from if a plural article is part of the name of a country
    • Je reviens des États-Unis. – I return from the United States.

Masculine Countries Starting With a Vowel

  • en is used to say in, at, to for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel
    • Je vais en Israël. – I’m going to Israel.
  • d’ is used to say from for all masculine countries beginning with a vowel
    • Je reviens d’ Israël. – I return from Israel.

Check For Understanding

  • Are all French countries ending in e feminine?
  • What geographical areas use the preposition dans le?
  • What prepositions do countries beginning with vowels use?
  • What prepositions does the city of Quebec use? …the province of Quebec?

Airports and Airplanes

French Vocabulary • Vacations
Airports and Airplanes Les aéroports et les avions
The AirportBaggage
l’aéroport (m)airport (pronounced ahehrohpor)les bagages (f pl)baggage
le passeportpassportles bagages à maincarry-on baggage
un chariota (shopping/baggage) cartla livraison des bagagesbaggage claim
les arrivées (f pl)arrivalsenregistrer (ses bagages)to check in (one’s baggage)
les départs (m pl)departures
arriver (en avance/en retard)to arrive (early/late)
The TerminalThe Airplane
l’aérogareterminall’avion (m)plane
la compagnie (aérienne)a(n airline) companyl’appareil (m)plane, machine, (body) system
le billet (d’avion/simple/aller-retour)(plane/one-way/round trip) ticketdécoller
le décollage
to take off
take-off
la classe tourisme
la première classe
coach
first class
le volflight (also theft)
passer à la douaneto go through customsle pilotepilot
le contrôleur
le contrôle de sécurité
security officer
security check
l’hôtesse (de l’air) (f)flight attendant
la portegate (also door)le passagerpassenger
embarquerto boardatterrir
l’atterrissage (m)
to land
landing

Places

French Regions
Île-de-France
- Paris
Basse-Normandie
- Caen
Bourgogne
- Dijon
Bretagne
- Rennes
European Countries
la France
* Paris
France
* Paris
la Belgique
* Bruxelles
Belgium
* Bruxelles
le Portugal
* Lisbonne
Portugal
* Lisbon
l’Espagne
* Madrid
Spain
* Madrid
l’Italie
* Rome
Italy
* Rome
la Grande-Bretagne
* Londres
Great Britain
* London
l’Irlande
* Dublin
Ireland
* Dublin
le (grand-duché du) Luxembourg
* Luxembourg
Luxembourg
* Luxembourg
les Pays-Bas
* Amsterdam
Netherlands
* Amsterdam
l’Allemagne
* Berlin
Germany
* Berlin
l’Autriche
* Vienne
Austria
* Vienna
la Suisse
* Berne
Switzerland
* Bern
La principauté de Monaco
* Monaco
Monaco
* Monaco
la Pologne
* Varsovie
Poland
* Warsaw
la République Tchèque
* Prague
Czech Republic
* Prague
la Slovaquie
* Bratislava
Slovakia
* Bratislava
la Hongrie
* Budapest
Hungary
* Budapest
la Bulgarie
* Sofia
Bulgaria
* Sofia
la Roumanie
* Bucarest
Romania
* Bucharest
la Grèce
* Athènes
Greece
* Athens
La principauté d’Andorre
* Andorre-la-Vieille
Andorra
* Andorra la Vella
la Moldavie
* Chisinau
Moldova
* Chi?in?u
la Biélorussie
* Minsk
Belarus
* Minsk
la Lituanie
* Vilnius
Lithuania
* Vilnius
la Lettonie
* Riga
Latvia
* Riga
l’Estonie
* Tallinn
Estonia
* Tallinn
la Finlande
* Helsinki
Finland
* Helsinki
la Suède
* Stockholm
Sweden
* Stockholm
la Norvège
* Oslo
Norway
* Oslo
la Russie
* Moscou
Russia
* Moscow
l’Ukraine
* Kiev
Ukraine
* Kiev

Nationalities

French Vocabulary • Vacations
Nationalities Les nationalités
MasculineFeminineEnglish
allemandallemandeGerman
américainaméricaineAmerican
anglaisanglaiseEnglish
australienaustralienneAustralian
belgebelgeBelgian
birmanbirmaneBurmese
britanniquebritanniqueBritish
cambodgiencambodgienneCambodian
canadiencanadienneCanadian
chinoischinoiseChinese
coréencoréenneKorean
écossaisécossaiseScottish
espagnolespagnoleSpanish
françaisfrançaiseFrench
indienindienneIndian
indonésienindonésienneIndonesian
israëlienisraëlienneIsraeli
italienitalienneItalian
japonaisjaponaiseJapanese
malaisienmalaisienneMalaysian
mauricienmauricienneMauritian
néerlandaisnéerlandaiseDutch
philippinphilippineFilipino
portugaisportugaisePortuguese
singapouriensingapourienneSingaporean
suédoissuédoiseSwedish
suissesuisseSwiss
thaïlandaisthaïlandaiseThai
vénézuélienvénézuélieneVenezuelan
vietnamienvietnamienneVietnamese

Nationalities are not capitalized as often in French as they are in English. If you are referring to a person, as in an Arab person or a Chinese person, the French equivalent is un Arabe or un Chinois. However, if you are referring to the Arabic language or Chinese language, the French would not capitalize: l’arabe; le chinois. If the nationality is used as an adjective, it is normally left uncapitalized; un livre chinois, un tapis arabe.+?

Perfect Tenses

You will be learning several new perfect tenses in this level. Review the grammar behind them. This time, make sure you know all the rules.

  • The perfect tenses are also called the compound or composed tenses.
  • The perfect tenses are all composed of a conjugated auxillary verb and a fixed past participle.

Auxillary Verb Formation

  • The auxillary verb is always either avoir or être.
  • The tense of the verb depends upon the tense that avoir or être is conjugated in.
    • When the auxillary verb is conjugated in the passé composé, for example, the auxillary verb is conjugated in the present indicative.
      • J’ai fini. – I have finished.

Past Participle Formation

  • -er verbs – replace -er with é
  • -ir verbs – replace -ir with i
  • -re verbs – replace -re with u
  • irregular verbs – must be memorized

Past Participle Agreement

  • The past participle must agree with the direct object of a clause in gender and plurality if the direct object goes before the verb.
    • the direct object is masculine singular – no change
      • J’ai fini le jeu. – I have finished the game.
      • Je l’ai fini. – I have finished it.
    • the direct object is feminine singular – add an e to the past participle
      • J’ai fini la tâche. – I have finished the task.
      • Je l’ai finie. – I have finished it.
    • the direct object is masculine plural – add an s to the past participle.
      • J’ai fini les jeux. – I have finished the games.
      • Je les ai finis. – I have finished them.
    • the direct object is feminine plural – add an es to the past participle.
      • J’ai fini les tâches. – I have finished the tasks.
      • Je les ai finies. – I have finished them.

Avoir ou Être?

  • In most circumstances, the auxillary verb is avoir.
  • However, under certain situations, the auxillary verb is être.
  • This occurs when:
    • The verb is one of 16 special verbs that take être.
      • Note that when a direct object is used with these verbs, the auxillary verb becomes avoir.
    • The verb is reflexive.
      • That is, the subject of the verb is also its object.

List of Tenses

There are seven perfect tenses in French. These are:

  1. Le passé composé (The Present Perfect)
  2. Le plus-que-parfait de l’indicatif (The Pluperfect of the Indicative)
  3. Le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif (The Pluperfect Subjunctive)
  4. Le passé antérieur (The Past Anterior)
  5. Le futur antérieur (The Future Anterior)
  6. Le conditionnel passé (The Past Conditional)
  7. Le passé du subjonctif (The Past Subjunctive)

G: Simple Future of Regular Verbs

There are three versions of the future tense in French, the futur simple the futur composé, and the futur antérieur(future perfect). The futur composé is formed by inserting the present form of aller before the infinitive, e.g. elle va réussir (she will pass, or she is going to pass) is the futur composé of elle réussit

To conjugate a verb in the futur simple, one takes the infinitive and appends the right form of avoir except for nous and vous which takes -ons or -ez, as according to the table:

SubjectAdd EndingConjugated Verb
Je-airéussirai
Tu-asréussiras
Il / Elle / On-aréussira
Nous-onsréussirons
Vous-ezréussirez
Ils / Elles-ontréussiront

Les vacances

Cet été, nous partirons en vacances au bord de la mer. Nous allons passer une semaine à Nice sur la côte d’Azur. Nous partirons en voiture et il y aura certainement beaucoup de bouchons sur l’autoroute. Nous nous baignerons le matin et je ferai des châteaux de sable avec mon fils. A midi nous mangerons puis nous ferons une bonne sieste car il fera certainement très chaud. L’après-midi, nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou alors nous irons dans des parc d’attractions. Vivement les vacances!

Content is available under GNU Free Documentation License Source: Wikibooks


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